Bharat Ek Khoj 02: The Beginnings

Bharat Ek Khoj 02: The Beginnings

Posted by

Time seems to change its
nature in prison Time seems to change its
nature in prison The present hardly exists for
there is an absence of feeling and
sensation which might separate it from
the dead past But the past is not life unless we can find the vital
links between it and the present with its
conflicts and problems I would like to place vivid images of the past before
you to make you sense how this
country of ours has changed step by step To make you see how the river
of history has run on from epoch to epoch and still rushes on to an
unknown sea In India, epics and Puranas are
witness to the fascination which the
secret of creation has had on the Indian mind The original matter of the world
is believed to be water The theory of evolution is
reflected in the progression of the first five AVATARS
(incarnations) of the VISHNU DASAVTARAS First MATSYA the fish created
out of the primal waters Then KURMA or Tortoise which
lives on both land and water Then VARAHA, the boar,
which according to Vayu Purana was chosen because it is an
animal delighting in water, Then NARASIMHA, the man
lion, and then the dwarf VAMAN
who represents primitive man In those days there were no
houses or other buildings People lived in caves Men ate fruit and nuts and the
animals they killed These savage men knew how
to draw with their stone needles and
pointed instruments They sketched animals on the
walls of caves Early man experienced
reverence and fear towards the wild animals. And
in the early period they may have been objects of
worship Human figures appear in the
paintings of the later period which were of a magical nature They were accompanied by
rituals and dancing to ensure success in hunting The first advance in civilization that early man made was to
combine together in packs or tribes as these are
called Each man put the interest of
the tribe before himself every member had to fight and
defend it And if any person in the tribe
did not work for the tribe he was thrown out Today’s food gatherers use iron
tools but digging in prehistoric sites
reveals a period when tools were made of stone Stone tools like scrapers,
cleavers, hand axes knife like flakes, arrowheads
and microliths were used. Perhaps some of these were
mounted on wooden sticks – like present day
arrowheads The men who used these tools
are called Paleolithic men because they used stone
implements and weapons Before the stone age came to
an end the climate of the world
changed greatly and became much warmer The glaciers receded and in
their place great forests arose Among these forests we find a
new race of men living They are called Neolithic men
or men of the new Stone age These neolithic men made the
great discovery of cultivation. This gave them more leisure and time to discover new things
and methods They started making earthen
pots and with the help of these they began to
cook their food their stone tools were much
better finished they also tamed animals like
the cow, the dog and sheep, and learnt to weave They lived in houses or huts An interesting result of tilling
land was that man began to settle down
in villages and towns they settled near big rivers and
in fertile valley where food and water
were abundant The land gave more food than
could be eaten up at once This was then stored up in
surplus This gave people more leisure
Trade increased and artisans creating arts and
crafts prospered At Mehrgarh in Afgandhistan Kot Diji in Pakistan and
Kalibangan in Rajasthan, are found traces of the
transition from what was an already developed village
culture to an urban culture The necessary pre-conditions
for the growth of an urban
civilization are: Surplus crops, a developed
trade network transport system standardised
weights and measures, use of currency or a barter
system a codified religion, and planned
architecture. The Indus Vally civilization developed along these lines The old civilization is the basis
of Indian life even today. It is interesting and rather
wonderful to think of this long range and continuity of
Indian culture and civilization right from the
dawn of history, I tried to identify myself for a
while with this unending procession, at the tail end of which I too
was struggling along I would separate myself and as
from a hilltop look down at the valley below The major occupation of the
Indus people seems to have centered around
trade It was an urban civilization where the merchant class was
wealthy and evidently played an important
role The streets lined with stalls and
small shops gave the impression of an
Indian Bazaar of today The Indus civilization in its
golden period also known as the Harappan
culture 2500BC to 1900BC included within its boundaries the Baluch hills, the Indus
plains, the Kutch and Kathiawar
peninsulas and the Ghaggar – Yamuna
basin The Indus plains were
dominated by Mohenjo-daro and Harrapa The Kathiawar peninsula had
for its capital Lothal The main town of the eastern
province was Kalibangan and of the western province –
Dabarkot The impact of the Indus
civilization was felt far beyond its borders in central
and West Asia The Indus Civilization was a
part of a trade network that stretched from the lower
Mesopotamian plains, across both ends of the Persian
Gulf, southern Iran and Afghanistan,
Baluchistan to Sind and beyond into the Indian
hinterland The Indus River and its
tributaries were the main waterways of the
civilization Further evidence of the
importance of river and sea trade can be seen from
the existence of the dock at Lothal and the
discovery of stone anchors and Jetties at
Dwarka In the time of Sargon of Agade Lothal and Mohan jodaro are
known to have exported and shell objects, beads of
semi-precious stones and perhaps cotton goods also,
to West Asian cities. Clay tablets of that period refer
to the Makran coast as Magan, and the West coast of India as
Meluha. Sail boats from India used to ply
to the port of Agade The ships from Meluha The
ships from Magan The ships from Dilman
anchored in the bay of Agade We thus find the Indus valley
civilization connected and trading with the civilizations of Sumeria, Persia and Egypt It would seem to follow that the
craftsmen of the Indus cities were, to a large
extent, producing for the foreign markets Whether, any form of currency
and standard of value was used in exchange of
commodities is uncertain The godowns attached to the
houses indicate that they belonged to rich merchants The number and size of houses
indicate a strong and prosperous merchant
community A surprising wealth of
ornaments of gold, silver, precious stones and vessels of
beaten copper and job metal implements and
weapons has been collected from the
ruins Both Mohenjodaro and Harappa were international market towns where commodities converge and are processed, packed and
redistributed They were also the starting
points for the overland mule pack caravans
that went south as far as Karnataka in search of
metals and other raw materials and
over the border towards Afghanistan, Iran and
Central Asia The goods packed in today’s
market towns are dispatched further afield and goods are marked for easy
identification The Indus seals probably
served the same purpose Most of the symbols on the
seals represent animals Is it the correct weight? Yes I
have verified it. When are the other boxes
coming? Before nightfall. What is the
hurry? The Captain of the ship wants
to leave within a day or two is coming here to have a
look at the goods Shulgi
What? I I want to ask you? don’t know where to begin You know the situation In
Sumeria Trade has shifted From us to
Babylon, Which is the new Capital in the
north I don’t know whether you will be
able to sell these goods. It is better that you give me my
share of silver now Why am I personally
undertaking the journey? Because I want to get extra
silver I will send you your share
before the next rains Who knows if I will be here till
then? There is no demand for our
goods The supplies from the villages
are dwindling These barbarians have also
started coming Draha, traders like you are
encouraging them Trading with them slyly Let us not talk about that don’t want anybody to hear of
this And I was going to ask for a
loan. Why ? Personal reasons. How do
arrange it ? Look, the Captain is here. This is my partner, Draha Has the timber been loaded ? Yes everything is loaded except
your consignment I believe outsiders are causing
trouble here? Everybody is talking about that If they take over the city, what
will you do ? Where will you go? Back to the village, where else? My wife’s relatives are there They supply the timber to us But even villages could be
raided what for? Everything comes
here to the cities What will they eat? They don’t
know cultivation The villages will survive there is
no doubt Sir, the tax inspector has come.
He wants to see you But we have already paid the
tax Not the entire amount I thought
you will share. Why should I? You have always
paid? We have agreed on that earlier I told you the Trade is slack If you could advance some of
the silver you owe me But I need the silver. I cannot
spare anything Let us talk to the inspector We will need some more time
to pay the tax Can you do something. Yes, I can stop putting the seal This is no joke Sir it is a serious
problem I cannot help you no tax, no
seal Your goods cannot leave from
here Atleast give us time
tomorrow All right, the seal can wait till
tomorrow. I am in no hurry What now? You heard it… arrange the silver
by tomorrow. Or you cannot take away the
goods There is a way out What ? The ship is ready. Tonight we
will load your goods Without the seal? Yes we will leave at night. I will
manage that Is that wise? Yes, don’t wait. You have
nothing to lose There is nothing here It is too risky. He will leave but
will still be here. There is no time to think I have
to alert my men The cities of the Indus
civilization were based on trade But what enabled the trader to
make his profit and keep it? What was the force necessary
for this trade to flourish ? The temple and the hold of the
priestly class could explain the mechanism of
controlling the population Though there are no great
statues of the Gods, The citadel mound corresponds
to the Ziggaraut structures In
Messopotamia Part of the ritual was for
travellers to consort with the living representatives of
the Godess at Pushkara a practice
which survives to this day in the devadasi cults
of the Deccan numerous figurines found at the
ruins bear a resemblance to present day
votive terracottas The existance of a living
goodess, similar to the Living Goodess of Nepal of
today, could explain the absence of
arge idols at the Indus Valley sites Dominance of religion could
explain why Indus culture remained static for more than
five hundred years Who were these people of the
Indus valley civilization and from where had they
come? We do not know yet It is quite possible and probable that their culture was an
indigenous culture and its roots and off shoots may
be found even in Southern India Temple worship and idol
worship are not found in the old vedic
religion They were probably adopted
later from non vedic cults What happened to the indus
valley civilization and how did it end ? some people say that there
was a sudden end to it due to an unexplained
catastrophe or a changing climate which led
to the expansion of the desert In any event climatic changes
could have only affected a small part of the
urban civilization which spread right upto the
Gangetic Valley Perhaps the decline in trade ed to the end of this civilization There is also the theory of
invasion by Aryans It has been suggested that
4000 years ago the Indus culture died due to
Aryan invasion Aryans destroyed the dam
system of the Indus valley thereby destroying its
agricultural base Hey! Hey! Who are you! What are you doing You cannot break our dam What is the matter? Why are you breaking the dam? You people have diverted all the
water for yourselves and our cattle are dying We cannot help it if your cattle
are dying Without this water our crops will
die This water is for our cattle alone Vedic Indra is described again
and again as freeing the streams from the
grip of the demons The demon lay like a dark
snake across the slopes The rivers were brought to a
standstill when the demon was struck by
Indra’s shattering weapon Ground buckled, the stones
rolled away like chariot wheels, the pent up waters flowed over
the demon’s recumbent body Hey you! You cannot sell
anything here. -Why not ? There is a rule against you
barbarians coming into the city. Don’t you know? You better
leave I will leave after all this is sold. What did you say ? Go somewhere else and sell
your goods. Go before you are thrown out! Who is going to throw me out?
You? Come on, let us see how you
throw me out. Stop threatening me I have told you. You are not
allowed here You cannot sell your goods
here. Go away Who allowed this fellow inside
the city? Keep away from me or I will kill
you all Get out of our city! We don’t want your dirt and filth
here Do you understand ? Get out before you are hurt ! You cannot hurt me, you soft
skinned priest I can break you into pieces with
my fingers You have been warned to stay
away from the city We are a peace loving people We don’t want your
impertinence here Go and stay away I am going. But you watch out What happened ? One of those damned
barbarians got into the city and tried to sell his wares. Was there a fight ? Who is going to fight with those
animals ? We don’t want to have anything
to do with them Do you think that is fair ? You are from Sumeria are you
not ? Yes Then you won’t understand our
problems I just hope there is no trouble
this evening at the ceremony What have you decided ? Are
you coming ? Where ? Back with me to Sumeria. Why not? I can not come, you know that The priests will never allow me
to leave I belong to the temple I am not
allowed to marry Who said anything about
marrying here come with me to Dilman, we will
get married there, No one will know But they will never let me go do you want to come with me ?
Do you ? Yes. Then we will find a way. Wait
for me tonight near the temple Don’t receive anyone else That is not possible Find a way, say you are sick I will come? I have got to go
now. The priests are waiting for me Respected citizens, my colleagues and I have come
from Dilman In keeping with the spirit of this
function We wish to present before the
noble citizens of this great city a famous story from our land This is the story of our great
hero, Gilgamesh, and his search for immortality Are you all right? I heard about
what happened It was very close Shulgi. I fear
the worst Oh! Stop worrying. Nothing will
happen It was a minor incident Minor? So far the Aryans only
destroyed fields and dams. But today when I went to their
camp to trade they stole all my goods No Shulgi, I think this behavior
of Aryans will take a dreadful shape. Look we will talk about this later Come to my house then –
can’t Atri? Yes, she says she won’t be
allowed to leave with me Of course not. The Priests
watch over her all the time. Listen , I will see you later Gilgamesh, I saw a dreadful
dream today, I saw Anu and others They were talking to each other Anu said, humans have
destroyed the animal of the heaven Hence one of these two will
have to die only I have to die They also said I have to die.
Gilgamesh will not die, My friend, they will kill me
should I have to go to the threshold of death Will I become a spirit after
death? Will I not be able to see my dear
brother any more ? What happened ? Have you
gone to sleep ? Or you are engulfed by the
darkness of night ? I am calling, but you are quiet ? Will I also reach the same state
when I die ? What trouble I have got myself
into ? I am roaming around in the
desert afraid of death, I am searching
for the world where one can be immortal Gligamesh, are you the same
Gilgamesh who killed lions of the hills and destroyed the enemies. Are you the same, who put to
sleep the animal of the heaven? If you are the same, why have
you gone pale ? There is sadness in the heart,
written on the face too. As if a traveler has arrived after
many journeys My friend, I showered so much
love on him He has become victim of the
cruel fate Day and night, I wept body rotted, worms swarmed I am roaming in the desert
afraid of death How can I keep quiet when my dear friend has been
reduced to dust ? Do I also have to lie down like
this forever, never to get up again ? Tell me, where is that world in
which the immortals live ? Which is the way and what is
the landmark ? Gilgamesh, there comes the
sailor Urshnabi he sails to the immortal world.
Ask him. Urshnabi, show me the way to
the world of immortality. If it is worthy of nobles, I will
cross the ocean and go. If not, I will cross the desert. You will sail, where will you
walking ? The life you are searching for,
you will never get. When the Gods made the man,
they designed death too. They kept the life in their hands Gilgamesh, they also need
something Be happy, day or night, enjoy
every moment. Sing, dance forgetting
everything Wear new clothes fresh, shining Look at the one who is walking
holding your finger He is your child, your own part,
give him respect Your wife, embrace her lovingly Keep your head without worry You are a man and live like a
man Only this is your duty
understand this Shulgi, have you gone mad? Do you realize what you have
done ? I don’t know what happened to
me In the confusion I saw an
opportunity and I grabbed it. You have to hide her here So this is Atri Your madness makes more
sense now Don’t be afraid you are safe
here. If I get caught they will kill me I should never have come Don’t worry. They will not look
for you here They will think that the
barbarians took you away Now what? We have to find a way to get
her to the ship That means you have to return
to Dilman There is no alternative fleeing the sinking ship ? Nonsense. Everything is going
to be all right. You still say that after what
happened The barbarians have never
come so close To me it looks like they were
testing our defenses The main attack will come soon Look Draha It is best to go Things are getting uncertain at
your end too We have almost a full
consignment ready I will sell it personally in Dilman and make sure we get a good
bargain The silver will reach you with
the first of the ships next season Can’t you leave Atri here for a
week ? Not a chance We have to leave as soon as
possible Or else we will be stuck here What about the Sumerian
Captain ? Will he help you His ship is about to sail. He
could smuggle you both out I have an idea. You and Atri
sneak into the ship at dawn That is fine. But what about the
unicorn seal? don’t worry about that. You
handle the Captain I am very grateful Draha If the barbarians come where
will you go ? To my village, where else? I still feel everything will settle
down You always look at the brighter
side of things Draha, we will wait till noon for
the goods If they are not loaded we sail.
Right ? Right. Take care of Atri Don’t let anyone see her till the
ship sails This civilization did not die
suddenly as believed earlier It underwent several changes The changed phase between
1900-1600 B.C. is called the late Harappan
culture It was followed by the Aryan
expansion. And in conformity with the
historical process of growth and settlement, they
gradually accepted many aspects of the previous
culture and were influenced by them it is sheer chance which led to
the discovery of these ruins There can be little doubt that there lie many such buried
cities and remains Between this Indus Valley
Civilization and others in India. There are
many gaps of which we know little but there is always an
underlying sense of continuity of an unbroken chain which
joins modern India to that distant period of six or
seven thousand years when the Indus Valley
Civilization probably began It is surprising how much there
is in Mohenjodaro and Harappa which reminds one of persisting
traditions and habits, rituals,
craftsmanship, dress The pleasant city and its mighty
king The tributary Princess by his
side The learned men that were the
kingdom’s pride The gracious ladies of the court, The Minstrels with a ready song
to sing the ring of heirs conquered by the lord of all birth Time, who makes memories of


  1. वामन अवतार आदिमानव का प्रतीक है ? Nehru is aligning his thought with Darwin.. very funny.

  2. Even today's world many tribes are staying in jungle, does it mean, science and people are not developing.??

  3. इतने अधिक 'शायद" किया है। इनको कुछ नहीं पता।

  4. Prachin bharat mandir nahi the
    Nehru ne khud kaha pura tatv ki shodh batate huve
    Abhi vo ladki keh rahi he me mandir se bandhi hui hu
    Jub ki dev dasi pratha aryo ke ane ke bad shuru hui sale dur darshan valo ne isme bhi bhot jol japat kiye he…

  5. आर्य लोग अपनी माँ बेहेन बेटी के साथ ही शादी कर लेते थे जैसे ब्रह्मा ने अपनी बेटी सरस्वती, पुसन ने अपनी माँ उषा से,और यम ने अपनी बेहेन यमी से,,,और तो और रंडी पेशे को इस जम्बूद्वीप यानि इंडिया में लाने वाले ये इनब्रीड आर्यन लोग ही थे वेदो में उल्लेख है की ये मादरचोद, इंद्र को अपनी बेहेन बेटी चोदने के लिए आमंत्रित करने वाले मन्त्र गाते थे,,,शुक्र है में दैत्य संस्कृति में पैदा हुआ

  6. woww, aaryo ko badnam kiya ja rha hy, ulta itihas hme pdhya gya or hme padhe ja rhe hy . afsos ki exam me likhne ke liye hame ye padhna prega.

  7. Talent overloaded , what a brilliant and skilful actors we had that time, KK Raina, Ila Arun, Pakaj Berry, Ravi Jhankal, Harish Patel, Saleem Ghaus, Irfan, Anag Desai, Lalit Tiwari, Vijay Kashyap Etc, but today In Historical series we have designer body actors with zero acting skill, with huge sets and unnecessary irritating sensational background music and boring camera focus

  8. इसमें तो आर्यो को असभ्य दिखाया गया है जबकि आर्य का का अर्थ ही होता है श्रेष्ठ।

  9. Now it is proven that Aryas was from India itself. People those who lived in Aryabarth called Arya,means the best.

  10. How do we know that the Aryans 'came' from somewhere? Could they not be the a sect or group formed from within the existing society?

  11. Baseless history . Aryan invasion theory has been proved false by my scholars around the world. But we are still following the same propaganda , just to benefit leftist gang. Historians like Irfan habib and Romila thapar were biased against the Hindu civilization and did all they could to malign it.

  12. absolutely absurd stories…..totally wrong… new evidence based on DNA finding… Indian DNA has different strand than others…. which establishes Aryan theory a total bogus concept….a tool British used to rule India

  13. नहरू का कहना था कि सिंधु सभ्यता आर्यो ने नष्ट करी और आर्य मध्य एशिया से आये लेकिन सच ये नही आर्य तो भारत के ही मूलनिवासी थे साला नहरू गलत इतिहास बता कर हिंदुओ को बेबकूफ बना गया।।

  14. How so called Aryans invade world's largest civilisation.This is totally fraud.How people believe this in mordern time even after found in excavation that Indus valley civilization have army.

  15. राम कृष्ण को रामायण महाभारत में आर्य कहा है फिर भी आर्य विदेशी कहने वाले मुर्ख
    हिन्दू हैं।
    बुद्ध को भी आर्य कहा है

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *